Human-Computer Interaction

Course titleSWSECTSTYPE

Applied Prototyping Skills for HCI (FHS)

Semester 1
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM1APSIL
Type IL
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 4
ECTS Credits 6
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to demonstrate prototyping skills in HCI challenges by implement-ing user interface prototypes with different levels of fidelity.

Superior module:

Prototyping for HCI

Module description:

Students will be able to demonstrate prototyping skills in HCI challenges by implement-ing user interface prototypes with different levels of fidelity.

Design Thinking for Digital Innovation (FHS)

Semester 1
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM1DTDIL
Type IL
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 3
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to apply design thinking to small predefined HCI challenges and conceptualize possible solutions with the aim to foster digital innovation.

Superior module:

Interaction Design & Digital Innovation

Module description:

Students will be able to design the interaction between users and interactive systems by applying appropriate interaction design methods and processes. Students will be able to apply design thinking to small predefined HCI challenges and conceptualize possible solutions with the aim to foster digital innovation.

Diversity & Intercultural Aspects (FHS)

Semester 1
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM1DIAVO
Type VO
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 1
ECTS Credits 1.5
Examination character final

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to manage the heterogeneity of today¿s users through engaging with various overlapping attributes of an individua's identity, (digital) ethics, gender as-pects, and societal aspects of HCI. They are able to collaborate with people from differ-ent cultures and understand user needs (empathy).

Superior module:

Ethics, Diversity & Society

Module description:

Students will be triggered to reflect their ethical viewpoint and to have a professional self-understanding. They will be able to analyse, assess, discuss and reflect on their behaviour and to integrate ethical and sustainability related considerations into their own future-oriented and responsible actions. Students will be able to manage the heterogeneity of today's users through engaging with various overlapping attributes of an individual's identity, (digital) ethics, gender as-pects, and societal aspects of HCI. They are able to collaborate with people from differ-ent cultures and understand user needs (empathy). Students are able to recall and discuss societal and legal aspects in HCI such as intel-lectual property rights, protection of data privacy (e.g., GDPR), and technology impact assessment. Students are able to differentiate problem areas which can arise from cur-rent technical developments in the professional field of HCI and can argument their own reflected viewpoint. Students will be able to manage the heterogeneity of today¿s users through engaging with various overlapping attributes of an individual¿s identity, (digital) ethics, gender as-pects, and societal aspects of HCI. They are able to collaborate with people from differ-ent cultures and understand user needs (empathy). Students are able to recall and discuss societal and legal aspects in HCI such as intel-lectual property rights, protection of data privacy (e.g., GDPR), and technology impact assessment. Students are able to differentiate problem areas which can arise from cur-rent technical developments in the professional field of HCI and can argument their own reflected viewpoint.

Ethics & Sustainability (FHS)

Semester 1
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM1ETSIL
Type IL
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 1
ECTS Credits 1.5
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be triggered to reflect their ethical viewpoint and to have a professional self-understanding. They will be able to analyse, assess, discuss and reflect on their behaviour and to integrate ethical and sustainability related considerations into their own future-oriented and responsible actions.

Superior module:

Ethics, Diversity & Society

Module description:

Students will be triggered to reflect their ethical viewpoint and to have a professional self-understanding. They will be able to analyse, assess, discuss and reflect on their behaviour and to integrate ethical and sustainability related considerations into their own future-oriented and responsible actions. Students will be able to manage the heterogeneity of today's users through engaging with various overlapping attributes of an individual's identity, (digital) ethics, gender as-pects, and societal aspects of HCI. They are able to collaborate with people from differ-ent cultures and understand user needs (empathy). Students are able to recall and discuss societal and legal aspects in HCI such as intel-lectual property rights, protection of data privacy (e.g., GDPR), and technology impact assessment. Students are able to differentiate problem areas which can arise from cur-rent technical developments in the professional field of HCI and can argument their own reflected viewpoint. Students will be able to manage the heterogeneity of today¿s users through engaging with various overlapping attributes of an individual¿s identity, (digital) ethics, gender as-pects, and societal aspects of HCI. They are able to collaborate with people from differ-ent cultures and understand user needs (empathy). Students are able to recall and discuss societal and legal aspects in HCI such as intel-lectual property rights, protection of data privacy (e.g., GDPR), and technology impact assessment. Students are able to differentiate problem areas which can arise from cur-rent technical developments in the professional field of HCI and can argument their own reflected viewpoint.

Experience Engineering Methods (PLUS)

Semester 1
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM1EEMIL
Type IL
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 4
Examination character final

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to name and explain usability and experience engineering methods and apply them to HCI use cases.

Superior module:

Human Factors & Experience Engineering

Module description:

Students will be able to name, explain, discuss and illustrate human factors and design princi-ples. Students will be able to name and explain usability and experience engineering methods and apply them to HCI use cases.

Foundations of HCI Methodologies (PLUS)

Semester 1
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM1FHMIL
Type IL
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 4
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to characterize and differentiate HCI research methodologies and their respective epistemologies, aims, methods and applications. They will be able to compare, se-lect and apply appropriate methodology to a given HCI problem.

Superior module:

HCI Theory & Methodology

Module description:

Students will be able to name, explain and discuss theories and paradigms of HCI. Students will be able to characterize and differentiate HCI research methodologies and their respective epistemologies, aims, methods and applications. They will be able to compare, se-lect and apply appropriate methodology to a given HCI problem.

HCI Theory & Paradigms (PLUS)

Semester 1
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM1HTPVO
Type VO
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 2
Examination character final

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to name, explain and discuss theories and paradigms of HCI.

Superior module:

HCI Theory & Methodology

Module description:

Students will be able to name, explain and discuss theories and paradigms of HCI. Students will be able to characterize and differentiate HCI research methodologies and their respective epistemologies, aims, methods and applications. They will be able to compare, se-lect and apply appropriate methodology to a given HCI problem.

Human Factors & Design Principles (PLUS)

Semester 1
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM1HFDVO
Type VO
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 2
Examination character final

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to name, explain, discuss and illustrate human factors and design principles.

Superior module:

Human Factors & Experience Engineering

Module description:

Students will be able to name, explain, discuss and illustrate human factors and design princi-ples. Students will be able to name and explain usability and experience engineering methods and apply them to HCI use cases.

Interaction Design (PLUS)

Semester 1
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM1INDIL
Type IL
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 3
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to design the interaction between users and interactive systems by apply-ing appropriate interaction design methods and processes.

Superior module:

Interaction Design & Digital Innovation

Module description:

Students will be able to design the interaction between users and interactive systems by applying appropriate interaction design methods and processes. Students will be able to apply design thinking to small predefined HCI challenges and conceptualize possible solutions with the aim to foster digital innovation.

Societal & Legal Aspects in HCI (FHS)

Semester 1
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM1SLAVO
Type VO
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 3
Examination character final

Learning Outcomes:

Students are able to recall and discuss societal and legal aspects in HCI such as intel-lectual property rights, protection of data privacy (e.g., GDPR), and technology impact assessment. Students are able to differentiate problem areas which can arise from cur-rent technical developments in the professional field of HCI and can argument their own reflected viewpoint.

Superior module:

Ethics, Diversity & Society

Module description:

Students will be triggered to reflect their ethical viewpoint and to have a professional self-understanding. They will be able to analyse, assess, discuss and reflect on their behaviour and to integrate ethical and sustainability related considerations into their own future-oriented and responsible actions. Students will be able to manage the heterogeneity of today's users through engaging with various overlapping attributes of an individual's identity, (digital) ethics, gender as-pects, and societal aspects of HCI. They are able to collaborate with people from differ-ent cultures and understand user needs (empathy). Students are able to recall and discuss societal and legal aspects in HCI such as intel-lectual property rights, protection of data privacy (e.g., GDPR), and technology impact assessment. Students are able to differentiate problem areas which can arise from cur-rent technical developments in the professional field of HCI and can argument their own reflected viewpoint. Students will be able to manage the heterogeneity of today¿s users through engaging with various overlapping attributes of an individual¿s identity, (digital) ethics, gender as-pects, and societal aspects of HCI. They are able to collaborate with people from differ-ent cultures and understand user needs (empathy). Students are able to recall and discuss societal and legal aspects in HCI such as intel-lectual property rights, protection of data privacy (e.g., GDPR), and technology impact assessment. Students are able to differentiate problem areas which can arise from cur-rent technical developments in the professional field of HCI and can argument their own reflected viewpoint.

Course titleSWSECTSTYPE

Contextual Analysis & Context Capturing (PLUS)

Semester 2
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM2CACIL
Type IL
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 3
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to select the adequate research method and approach specific contexts in field studies appropriately. They will be able to describe the specific context appropriately.

Superior module:

Contextual HCI

Module description:

Students will be able to select the adequate research method and approach specific contexts in field studies appropriately. They will be able to describe the specific context appropriately. Students will be able to research, conceptualize, design and build prototypes for interaction problems in specific application areas.

Contextual Interaction Design (PLUS)

Semester 2
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM2CIDIL
Type IL
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 3
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to research, conceptualize, design and build prototypes for interaction problems in specific application areas.

Superior module:

Contextual HCI

Module description:

Students will be able to select the adequate research method and approach specific contexts in field studies appropriately. They will be able to describe the specific context appropriately. Students will be able to research, conceptualize, design and build prototypes for interaction problems in specific application areas.

HCI Research Project (JOINT)

Semester 2
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM2HRPPT
Type PT
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 6
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to apply theoretical knowledge, as well as technological and meth-odological skills to master a complex research problem. They will be able to formulate well-defined research questions and conceptualize an appropriate study. They will be able to select and apply a methodological approach, perform appropriate (user-)studies, analyse their data appropriately and interpret their findings. They will be able to write a scientific research paper and submit it to a scientific HCI conference.

Superior module:

HCI & Research

Module description:

Students will be able to analyse and discuss recent HCI related scientific literature and materials with respect to novel theories, methods, designs and technologies. They will be able to critically reflect on the appropriateness of research questions, designs and methods. They will be able to identify, reflect and discuss research trends in HCI. Students will be able to describe predominant theories, methods and recent trends in related scientific disciplines and are able to reflect their applicability to HCI research. Students will be able to apply theoretical knowledge, as well as technological and meth-odological skills to master a complex research problem. They will be able to formulate well-defined research questions and conceptualize an appropriate study. They will be able to select and apply a methodological approach, perform appropriate (user-)studies, analyse their data appropriately and interpret their findings. They will be able to write a scientific research paper and submit it to a scientific HCI conference.

Interaction Approaches & Technologies (FHS)

Semester 2
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM2IATLB
Type LB
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 4
ECTS Credits 6
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to compare, select, utilize, adapt and implement advanced interac-tion technologies according to an application area.

Superior module:

Interaction Technologies

Module description:

Students will be able to compare, select, utilize, adapt and implement advanced interac-tion technologies according to an application area.

Lecture Series: HCI Related Disciplines (JOINT)

Semester 2
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM2LESVO
Type VO
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 3
Examination character final

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to describe predominant theories, methods and recent trends in related scientific disciplines and are able to reflect their applicability to HCI research.

Superior module:

HCI & Research

Module description:

Students will be able to analyse and discuss recent HCI related scientific literature and materials with respect to novel theories, methods, designs and technologies. They will be able to critically reflect on the appropriateness of research questions, designs and methods. They will be able to identify, reflect and discuss research trends in HCI. Students will be able to describe predominant theories, methods and recent trends in related scientific disciplines and are able to reflect their applicability to HCI research. Students will be able to apply theoretical knowledge, as well as technological and meth-odological skills to master a complex research problem. They will be able to formulate well-defined research questions and conceptualize an appropriate study. They will be able to select and apply a methodological approach, perform appropriate (user-)studies, analyse their data appropriately and interpret their findings. They will be able to write a scientific research paper and submit it to a scientific HCI conference.

Research Trends in HCI (JOINT)

Semester 2
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM2RETSE
Type SE
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 3
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to analyse and discuss recent HCI related scientific literature and materials with respect to novel theories, methods, designs and technologies. They will be able to critically reflect on the appropriateness of research questions, designs and methods. They will be able to identify, reflect and discuss research trends in HCI.

Superior module:

HCI & Research

Module description:

Students will be able to analyse and discuss recent HCI related scientific literature and materials with respect to novel theories, methods, designs and technologies. They will be able to critically reflect on the appropriateness of research questions, designs and methods. They will be able to identify, reflect and discuss research trends in HCI. Students will be able to describe predominant theories, methods and recent trends in related scientific disciplines and are able to reflect their applicability to HCI research. Students will be able to apply theoretical knowledge, as well as technological and meth-odological skills to master a complex research problem. They will be able to formulate well-defined research questions and conceptualize an appropriate study. They will be able to select and apply a methodological approach, perform appropriate (user-)studies, analyse their data appropriately and interpret their findings. They will be able to write a scientific research paper and submit it to a scientific HCI conference.

EC1: Elective Courses 1

Elective Courses 1

Semester 2
Academic year 1
Course code HCIM2EC1IL
Type IL
Kind Elective
Language of instruction German
SWS 4
ECTS Credits 6
Examination character immanent

Lecture content:

A detailed list of recommended courses is to be found in the main document in section F1.4. Students will be encouraged to take courses in the fields of design, psychology and in-formation technology in order to deepen their personal skill set with respect to HCI.

Superior module:

EC1: Elective Courses 1

Module description:

Learning outcomes will be announced in the course syllabus

Course titleSWSECTSTYPE

Advanced Contextual Interfaces (JOINT)

Semester 3
Academic year 2
Course code HCIM3ACIIL
Type IL
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 3
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to discuss various HCI streams. Based on one specific stream they will be able to solve contextual challenges and design one or more advanced contextu-al interfaces for a specific application area.

Superior module:

Advanced Contextual HCI

Module description:

Students will be able to discuss various HCI streams. Based on one specific stream they will be able to solve contextual challenges and design one or more advanced contextual interfaces for a specific application area. Students will be able to identify and examine challenges in industrial settings accompa-nying development processes of complex interactive systems or services and their in-tegration.

Complex Interactive Systems (FHS)

Semester 3
Academic year 2
Course code HCIM3CISIL
Type IL
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 3
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to identify and examine challenges in industrial settings accompa-nying development processes of complex interactive systems or services and their in-tegration.

Superior module:

Advanced Contextual HCI

Module description:

Students will be able to discuss various HCI streams. Based on one specific stream they will be able to solve contextual challenges and design one or more advanced contextual interfaces for a specific application area. Students will be able to identify and examine challenges in industrial settings accompa-nying development processes of complex interactive systems or services and their in-tegration.

Design of Innovative Interactions (PLUS)

Semester 3
Academic year 2
Course code HCIM3DIIIL
Type IL
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 3
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to identify and utilize recent and upcoming technologies to envision con-cepts and implement prototypes of innovative systems and services.

Superior module:

HCI Innovations & Future Technologies

Module description:

Students will be able to identify and utilize recent and upcoming technologies to envi-sion concepts and implement prototypes of innovative systems and services. Students will be able to analyse, estimate and predict potential impacts of new technolo-gies on society and the environment based on possible application areas.

Experience Leadership & Innovation Management (PLUS)

Semester 3
Academic year 2
Course code HCIM3ELISE
Type SE
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 3
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to apply management skills and principles to develop, establish and maintain holistic UX strategies for industrial settings.

Superior module:

HCI & Industries

Module description:

Students will be able to apply organizational, methodological, technological and design principles to economically improve the user experience addressing given real-world industrial problems. Students will be able to apply management skills and principles to develop, establish and maintain holistic UX strategies for industrial settings. Students will be able to master an industry focused project that starts with a complex re-al-world problem in HCI and ends up with an economically feasible solution. They are able to manage and organize an industrial project. They are able to document and pre-sent the project according to professional standards.

HCI Industry Project (JOINT)

Semester 3
Academic year 2
Course code HCIM3HIPPT
Type PT
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 6
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to master an industry focused project that starts with a complex re-al-world problem in HCI and ends up with an economically feasible solution. They are able to manage and organize an industrial project. They are able to document and pre-sent the project according to professional standards.

Superior module:

HCI & Industries

Module description:

Students will be able to apply organizational, methodological, technological and design principles to economically improve the user experience addressing given real-world industrial problems. Students will be able to apply management skills and principles to develop, establish and maintain holistic UX strategies for industrial settings. Students will be able to master an industry focused project that starts with a complex re-al-world problem in HCI and ends up with an economically feasible solution. They are able to manage and organize an industrial project. They are able to document and pre-sent the project according to professional standards.

Impacts of Future Technologies (JOINT)

Semester 3
Academic year 2
Course code HCIM3IFTSE
Type SE
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 3
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to analyse, estimate and predict potential impacts of new technol-ogies on society and the environment based on possible application areas.

Superior module:

HCI Innovations & Future Technologies

Module description:

Students will be able to identify and utilize recent and upcoming technologies to envi-sion concepts and implement prototypes of innovative systems and services. Students will be able to analyse, estimate and predict potential impacts of new technolo-gies on society and the environment based on possible application areas.

User Experience in Practice (FHS)

Semester 3
Academic year 2
Course code HCIM3UEPIL
Type IL
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 2
ECTS Credits 3
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to apply organizational, methodological, technological and design principles to economically improve the user experience addressing given real-world industrial problems.

Superior module:

HCI & Industries

Module description:

Students will be able to apply organizational, methodological, technological and design principles to economically improve the user experience addressing given real-world industrial problems. Students will be able to apply management skills and principles to develop, establish and maintain holistic UX strategies for industrial settings. Students will be able to master an industry focused project that starts with a complex re-al-world problem in HCI and ends up with an economically feasible solution. They are able to manage and organize an industrial project. They are able to document and pre-sent the project according to professional standards.

EC2: Elective Courses 2

Elecetive Courses 2

Semester 3
Academic year 2
Course code HCIM3EC2IL
Type IL
Kind Elective
Language of instruction German
SWS 4
ECTS Credits 6
Examination character immanent

Lecture content:

A detailed list of recommended courses is to be found in the main document in section F1.4. Students will be encouraged to take courses in the fields of design, psychology and information technology in order to deepen their personal skill set with respect to HCI.

Superior module:

EC2: Elective Courses 2

Module description:

Learning outcomes will be announced in the course syllabus

Course titleSWSECTSTYPE

Master Exam (JOINT)

Semester 4
Academic year 2
Course code HCIM4MAEIT
Type DP
Kind Diploma/master thesis
Language of instruction English
SWS 0
ECTS Credits 3
Examination character final

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to present acquired knowledge orally using digital support materi-als. They will be able to prove their specialist and methodical knowledge by discussing aspects of their master¿s thesis, relevant subjects of the curriculum and other curriculum-relevant content with a professional audience.

Superior module:

Master Seminar & Exam

Module description:

Students will be able to reflect and discuss scientific question of their master's thesis as well as the scientific methods used. Students will be able to present acquired knowledge orally using digital support materi-als. They will be able to prove their specialist and methodical knowledge by discussing aspects of their master's thesis, relevant subjects of the curriculum and other curriculum-relevant content with a professional audience.

Master Thesis

Semester 4
Academic year 2
Course code HCIM4MATIT
Type IT
Kind Diploma/master thesis
Language of instruction German
SWS 0
ECTS Credits 25
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to work independently on a major task of the same level as the pro-fessional practice of a Master of Science in HCI degree holder. Students will be able to apply theoretical knowledge, as well as technological and methodological skills to mas-ter a complex, self-identified research problem. They will be able to formulate well-defined research questions and conceptualise an appropriate study. They will be able to select and apply a methodological approach, perform appropriate (user-)studies, ana-lyse their data appropriately and interpret their findings. They are able to clearly com-municate findings in an academically appropriate form.

Superior module:

Master Thesis

Module description:

Students will be able to work independently on a major task of the same level as the professional practice of a Master of Science in HCI degree holder. Students will be able to apply theoretical knowledge, as well as technological and methodological skills to master a complex, self-identified research problem. They will be able to formulate well-defined research questions and conceptualise an appropriate study. They will be able to select and apply a methodological approach, perform appropriate (user-)studies, analyse their data appropriately and interpret their findings. They are able to clearly communicate findings in an academically appropriate form.

Master Thesis Seminar (JOINT)

Semester 4
Academic year 2
Course code HCIM4MTSSE
Type SE
Kind Compulsory
Language of instruction English
SWS 1
ECTS Credits 2
Examination character immanent

Learning Outcomes:

Students will be able to reflect and discuss scientific question of their master's thesis as well as the scientific methods used.

Superior module:

Master Seminar & Exam

Module description:

Students will be able to reflect and discuss scientific question of their master's thesis as well as the scientific methods used. Students will be able to present acquired knowledge orally using digital support materi-als. They will be able to prove their specialist and methodical knowledge by discussing aspects of their master's thesis, relevant subjects of the curriculum and other curriculum-relevant content with a professional audience.

Legend
SemesterSemesters 1, 3, 5: courses held only in winter semester (mid-September to end of January), Semesters 2, 4, 6: courses held only in summer semester (mid-February to end of June)
SWSweekly contact hours over 14 weeks in semester (example SWS 2 equals 28 contact hours for the whole course
ECTS CreditsWork load in ECTS credits, 1 ECTS credit equals an estimated 25 hours of work for the student
INTL-CodeIndicates categories for incoming students
5: offered in English on a routine basis
4: offered in English if a specified number of incoming students attend (usually 3)
3: taught in German but support material in English, exams can also be taken in English, active support from a student buddy
2: taught in German, incoming students require sufficient German proficiency to follow class
1: not available for incomings
TypeBP = Bachelor final exam
DP/MP = Master final exam
IL = Lecture with integrated project work
IT = Individual training/phases
LB = Lab (session)
PS = Pro-seminar
PT = Project
RC = Course with integrated reflective practice
RE = Revision course
SE = Seminar
TU = Tutorial
UB = Practice session/Subject practical sessions
VO = Lecture